Resultant blunders ignited a civil war that might have been avoided, and plunged Iraq into chaos. Eventually, to their credit, the American military began to teach soldiers and civilians about Iraqi culture, and began to consider Iraqi values, attitudes, and traditions in the formulation of policies and procedures.
- Poverty, Political Freedom, and the Roots of Terrorism.
- The Roots of Terrorism.
- Ragnar Lodbrok und seine Söhne (Leben und Taten der nordischen Helden und Könige 5) (German Edition).
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The threat of attacks on the United States from outside the country, and from within, will remain with us for many years. It will not be possible to thwart every terrorist plot to harm Americans. In fact, as I write this on December 5, , the United States is mourning the victims of a horrific attack in San Bernardino, California.
A husband born and raised in the United States , and his wife born in Pakistan , armed with home-made bombs, guns, and an immense supply of ammunition, walked into a large holiday gathering of the husband's fellow workers and opened fire killing fourteen people and wounding at least twenty more. The couple then attempted to flee in a rented vehicle but were eventually killed in a gun battle with law-enforcement officials.
Since then, local, state, and federal authorities have found massive stores of home-made bombs, ammunition, and weapons in the couple's middle-class apartment home. It is also now clear that the female member of the team had a direct connection to ISIL. Should this be considered international terrorism or domestic terrorism?
Additionally, they had an infant daughter, were in constant contact with his family who also live in this part of California, and regularly worshipped with a group of fellow Muslims who deplore the violent act of terrorists. The following U. State Department Report provides an overview of the terrorist threat on a country by country basis.
Exploring the roots of terrorism - Oxford Scholarship
Please find the introduction to this report and the URL address to the rest of the report below. The United States and our international partners made major strides to defeat and degrade international terrorist organizations in We worked with allies and partners around the world to expand information sharing, improve aviation security, enhance law enforcement and rule of law capacities, and prevent terrorist recruitment and recidivism.
Despite our successes, the terrorist landscape grew more complex in They have become more dispersed and clandestine, turning to the internet to inspire attacks by distant followers, and, as a result, have made themselves less susceptible to conventional military action. Further, the return or relocation of foreign terrorist fighters from the battlefield has contributed to a growing cadre of experienced, sophisticated, and connected terrorist networks, which can plan and execute terrorist attacks.
As ISIS lost territory, it continued to shift away from a centralized command and control structure toward a more diffuse model. It has experimented with and employed small unmanned aerial systems and has used rudimentary chemical weapons. The group encouraged sympathizers to use whatever weapons were at hand — such as large vehicles — against soft targets and public spaces.
Religious extremism main cause of terrorism, according to report
Increasingly, the responsibility for deciding where, when, and how to attack has devolved to homegrown terrorists inspired or enabled by ISIS to conduct operations far from the war zone. Iran is responsible for intensifying multiple conflicts and undermining the legitimate governments of, and U. In particular, Iran and Hizballah are emerging from the Syria conflict emboldened and with valuable battlefield experience that they seek to leverage across the globe.
Beyond the Middle East, Iran and its terrorist affiliates and proxies posed a significant threat and demonstrated a near-global terrorist reach. Notably, in June , the FBI arrested two suspected Hizballah operatives in Michigan and New York who allegedly were conducting surveillance and intelligence gathering on behalf of the organization, including in the United States.
Regionally focused terrorists groups remained a threat in For example, Hamas continued to rebuild its military infrastructure and capabilities to support terrorist attacks against Israel. Additionally, Pakistan-based Jaish-e-Mohammed and Lashkar e-Tayyiba continued to pose a regional threat in the subcontinent. In short, the nature of the terrorist threat confronting the United States and our allies around the world evolved in While the immediate dynamics that led terrorists to flock to Iraq and Syria since have diminished, other factors that terrorists exploit to recruit new followers remained a challenge, such as sectarianism, failing states, and conflict zones.
More than ever, it remains a critical priority for the United States and our allies to defeat our terrorist adversaries.
The roots of Islamic terrorism
In December, with U. UN Security Council resolution UNSCR requires member states to collect airline reservation data to block terrorist travel, to develop watchlists of known and suspected terrorists, and to use biometrics to spot terrorists who might be trying to cross their borders. The resolution also calls on UN members to enact serious criminal offenses that will enable them to prosecute and penalize terrorists who have returned from the battlefield. In addition, throughout , the State Department led bilateral diplomatic efforts with key countries to improve border and aviation security and information sharing.
We increased the number of Homeland Security Presidential Directive 6 HSPD-6 arrangements to share information about known and suspected terrorists by almost 15 percent in The United States also deployed the latest border security systems to key counterterrorism partners, provided screening technology and training, and worked to expand global engagement on transportation-related threats. We also used foreign assistance resources to enable our partners to better identify, deter, disrupt, apprehend, prosecute, and convict terrorists and their supporters.
Our goal is for partners to be able to confront the terrorist threats they face themselves without turning to the United States for assistance. We placed special emphasis on helping partner countries enact appropriate legal frameworks to bring criminal charges against terrorist offenders. At the end of , 70 countries had laws in place to prosecute and penalize foreign terrorist fighters, and 69 had prosecuted or arrested foreign terrorist fighters or their facilitators.
The State Department also continued to expose and sanction states that back terrorism. These efforts are only a snapshot of our ongoing work to protect the United States, our allies, and interests from terrorism. As we look to the rest of and beyond, the United States remains committed to working with our allies and partners to confront the shared threat of global terrorism.
I hope this report will serve as a useful resource for those seeking to better understand this threat and our efforts to defeat it. In the last lesson of this course, we will examine civil security and organized crime. Eventually, it is likely that the drug cartels that now operate along the U. Skip to main content. The Roots of Terrorism Print According to Ralph Peters, there are two kinds of terrorists: the practical and the apocalyptic. Ambassador Nathan A. Meanwhile, the and GEM Global Reports--the world's largest entrepreneurship study--found burgeoning entrepreneurial activity in the world's poorest economies.
Ten sub-Saharan economies--Angola, Botswana, Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Namibia, Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia--are "in the midst of an entrepreneurial revolution that is invigorating the region with new opportunities, increased employment, and a robust rise in gross domestic product," according to GEM. American foreign policymakers need to be aware of this activity. We and our allies can help encourage entrepreneurial eco-systems to take root in Nigeria, for example, to help low-income youth resist the lure of Boko Haram and other violent extremist groups.
The GEM Report found "an incredible ability for people here to create their own jobs, and in many cases, jobs for others," adding, "entrepreneurship in sub-Saharan Africa can contribute substantially toward providing income for families and lifting communities out of poverty. I propose that the United States take the lead in establishing five international initiatives to connect entrepreneurs to markets and financing, and promote entrepreneurship as a viable path out of poverty for low-income youth.
Potential sponsors include not only national governments, but also the World Economic Forum and major corporations. International business plan competition The top ten young entrepreneurs under age forty from countries worldwide would be honored at an award ceremony and networking event in a different city annually. That is a small amount to invest compared to the social benefits of building a new generation of entrepreneurs.
Free apps to connect entrepreneurs to markets globally These would enable a small farmer in Syria, for example, to find importers in Europe for his dates. Part 2 of a four-part series on winning the war on terror with owner-entrepreneurship education and support for entrepreneurs.
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Research into the Root Causes of Terrorism
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