This cambium starts to divide and give rise to a multiple cellular layer plate XX, fig. To complete the sealing of new wood from old wood, rays are too suberized from the innermost ray cells outward plate XVIII, fig. The observations of Diettert were extended by Moss Moss , p. Possible biological functions of the interxylary cork layer are strengthening stem bases, protection against desiccation, protection against pathogenic organisms, and protection against deleterious effect associated with the annual dying of inflorescences Diettert ; Moss In soils without restricting layers, root depths for basin big sagebrush have been recorded as deep as 10 to 15 feet Daubenmire ; Kearney and others For mountain and Wyoming big sagebrush, depths from 5 to 8 feet have been reported Daddy and others ; Manning and Groeneveld ; Reynolds and Fraley ; Sturges , ; Welch The tap root of individual big sagebrush plants are not necessarily the deepest.
Often, the deepest roots are branches lateral roots of the tap root Manning and Groeneveld ; Sturges Not only does big sagebrush produce a deep root system, but just under the soil surface lateral roots branch off the tap root forming a vast root network; the majority of the root system occurs just 12 inches under the soil surface Daddy and others ; Dobrowolski and others ; Flanagan and others ; Manning and Groeneveld ; Sturges These shallow roots not only absorb water that accumulates in the upper soil layers during winter and spring, but can also make use of infrequent moisture from summer convective storms Donovan and Ehleringer Some of these lateral roots extend out from mature plants a distance of 3 to 5 feet before growing deeper into the soil profile Dobrowolski and others ; Reynolds and Fraley ; Sturges ; Welch Abbott and others 19 found that rooting depth of big sagebrush was more dependent on soil moisture than soil disturbance.
Tabler found that root depth in mountain big sagebrush was deeper on the drier ridge and westexposure sites as compared to the moister valley bottom and east-exposure sites. Thus, big sagebrush develops a two-tiered root system of dense root network at the soil surface and a deep system with tap root or extending laterals; the diffuse root system of big sagebrush is much greater than the taproot system Caldwell and Fernandez ; Tabler Root growth begins in the early spring a few days before shoot or stem growth and continues through the late fall Caldwell ; Caldwell and Fernandez ; Eissenstat and Caldwell ; Fernandez and Caldwell ; Robertson ; Sturges Caldwell and Fernandez observed that individual root elements may undergo growth and development for only 2 weeks or less, but the entire root system is active for most of the year.
Through experimentation with a radioactive isotope of iodine, Daubenmire reported that the isotope absorbed by one section of the root system was found only in one discrete section of the crown. Thus, it appears that individual components of the root systems are linked to specific sections of the crown. This supports earlier findings of Cook and Stoddart who observed that twigs clipped on half of a big sagebrush plant resulted in the death of the root system on the same half. Lunt and others found that the oxygen requirement of big sagebrush roots is unusually high, 0.
This compares to 0. This is illustrated in table 1. Big sagebrush has been found growing on the following five orders: Alfisols, Aridisols, Entisols, Inceptisols, and Mollisols. Within these five soil orders, big sagebrush was reported as growing on 11 soil suborders, 23 great groups, and 72 subgroups table 1. Big sagebrush can be found growing on all 12 soil textural classes—clay, silty clay, silty clay loam, silt loam, silt, clay loam, loam, sandy USDA Forest Service Gen. Chemical properties of big sagebrush soils are highly variable among soil horizons of a given site and among 21 sites, as shown in table 1.
For example, the percentages of organic carbon for A, B, and C horizons for a given site were: A 2. A horizon among sites varied from 0. Soil pH of big sagebrush soils also varied among soil horizons within a given site and among sites table 1. Annual precipitation falling on big sagebrush soils varies from 5 to 58 inches Barker and McKell ; Blackburn and others, , a,b; Blackburn and Skau ; Blank and others ; Fisser ; Goodrich and others ; Jameson and others ; Mason and others ; Mueggler and Stewart ; Passey and Hugie a; Passey and others ; Shown and others ; Tisdale and others ; Van Ryswyk and others Moisture infiltration rates of big sagebrush soils varied from 0.
Balliette and others found infiltration rates under big sagebrush canopy to be higher than the interspaces. Eldridge and Rosentreter , p. A Soil horizons B C 7. A Soil horizons B C 6. Nuttall , p. His description: canescently tomentose; leaves cuneate, three-toothed at the summit, upper ones entire and obtuse; flowers paniculate; capitulum sessile, ovate and tomentose, small; inner sepals scariose, linear-oblong.
A low, but rather stout shrub, white with a close tomentum. Leaves rather more than an inch long, about two lines wide, more or less deeply three-toothed, sometime entire, the upper ones always so. Panicle much branched, the flowers small. I have not seen them in a perfect state, and therefore class this species by its apparent affinity with the last. Somewhat allied to A. Later Torrey and Gray , p. Many of these classification schemes are compared in a paper by McArthur Some authorities have divided subspecies A. One form is called subalpine big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata ssp. McArthur and Sanderson note that it is cytologically distinctive.
Also, subspecies basin big sagebrush is divided by some authorities into forms or varieties, the typical form, f. The dichotomous key side bar on this page by McArthur and others describes the characteristics that separate the woody sagebrush from other plants and distinguishes subspecies of big sagebrush bold type leads to big sagebrush.
Other workers have constructed dichotomous keys also as an aid in identifying subspecies of big sagebrush Beetle ; Beetle and Johnson ; Blaisdell and others ; Brunner ; Winward ; Winward and Tisdale Blaisdell and others have compared some of these keys. In general, mountain big sagebrush grows at higher, cooler, and moister elevations 4, to 11, feet than basin or Wyoming big sagebrush; basin big sagebrush grows lower at warmer and dryer elevations 2, to 7, feet than mountain big sagebrush; and Wyoming big sagebrush is found at the hottest and driest elevations 2, to 7, feet of the big sagebrush subspecies Beetle and Johnson ; Bonham and others ; Frisina and Wambolt ; Hodgkinson ; Johnson ; McArthur ; Mahalovich and McArthur ; McDonough and Harniss ; Winward ; Winward and Tisdale Monsen and McArthur and Goodrich and others reported average annual precipitation for mountain big sagebrush stands to be about 17 inches, 14 inches for basin big sagebrush, and 11 inches for Wyoming big sagebrush.
Tisdale and Hironaka noted that stands dominated by Wyoming big sagebrush were the first to became water deficient mid-July , basin big sagebrush stands were second late July to early August , and mountain big sagebrush stands were the last to become water deficient September. Barker and McKell , studying the habitat characteristics of contiguous populations of basin and Wyoming big sagebrush, found that 25 1a. Head with both ray and disc flowers; pappus of several to many scales. Heads with only disc flowers or if ray flowers present then pappus of capillary bristles or lacking.
Pappus of capillary bristles, at least in part. Pappus lacking…Artemisia sagebrush. Heads with both ray marginal flowers and disc flowers; plants subshrubs or shrubs. Heads with disc flowers only; plants shrubs. Plants up to 5 dm high. Plants usually over 5 dm high 42b provide most exceptions to 5 dm height. Leaves silvery-canescent, linear to linear-oblanceolate, mostly entire occasionally with a few irregular teeth , or leaves deeply divided into three of more linear or linear-oblanceolate lobes.
Leaves not silvery-canescent, narrowly lanceolate to broadly cuneate or fan-shaped, typically 3tooth or lobed upper leaves may be entire. Plants low-growing, flat-topped shrubs up to 8 dm high; leaves somewhat viscid; heads occurring singly or occasionally up to three arranged in short interrupted spike or raceme like inflorescences; heads large with up to 20 disc flowers each; occurs in high mountainous areas of central Colorado, western Wyoming, Utah, central Sierras of California, and Carson Range of Nevada.
Plants ranging from dwarf to tall, arborescent forms up to 4. Artemisia tridentata big sagebrush. Plants uneven-topped shrubs with flowering stalks arising throughout the crown; leaves narrowly lanceolate to cuneate; odor of crushed leaves pungent 42a. Mature plants often arborescent with single trunk-like main stem , usually from 1 to 2 m but in some forms up to 4. Mature plants with several main branches usually less than 1 m high; leaves narrowly cuneate to cuneate with margins curved outward; average persistent leaf length is 3. Plants usually even-topped shrubs with flower stalks arising from the upper crown portions; leaves broadly cuneate to spatulate; average persistent leaf length is 4.
In addition, the vegetative tissue of basin big sagebrush contained great amounts of nitrogen, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, iron, and zinc. Shumar and Anderson found that basin and Wyoming big sagebrush distributions were closely associated with soil texture. Basin big sagebrush was supported by sandy soils and Wyoming big sagebrush 26 by silty textured soils.
Barker and McKell found in northeastern Utah and southwestern Wyoming that Wyoming big sagebrush grew mainly on Aridisols and basin big sagebrush on Entisols. Swanson and others found in eastern Oregon that Wyoming big sagebrush often grew on Aridisols soils, mountain big sagebrush on Mollisols at higher elevations, and basin big sagebrush on deeper soils of either order of soils. Jensen a, noted that all three subspecies of big sagebrush grew on Mollisols soils of northeast Nevada. Here, basin big sagebrush tends to occupy deep, sandy soils, whereas mountain big sagebrush occurred at cool, moist, higher elevations, and Wyoming big sagebrush tends to be on shallow, silty soils where moisture stress is greater.
Because of the moisture gradient among the three subspecies of big sagebrush, understory or associated plant species differ among subspecies with Wyoming big sagebrush representing the dry side xeric , mountain big sagebrush the wet side mesic , and basin big sagebrush in between. Winward pointed out that fewer perennial forbs grow in association with Wyoming big sagebrush than with the other two subspecies. Grasses associated with Wyoming big sagebrush include bluebunch wheatgrass Agropyron spicatum , needle-and-thread Stipa comata , squirreltail Sitanion hystrix , and Salina wildrye Elymus salina.
Winward , p. At higher elevations, dense stands of mountain big sagebrush subalpine big sagebrush often support gophers Thomomys ssp. Winward As stated earlier, basin big sagebrush sites are in between the dryness of Wyoming and the wetness of mountain big sagebrush. Forbs are more prevalent than in Wyoming big sagebrush, and grasses of Wyoming big sagebrush are also present in basin big sagebrush along with basin wildrye Winward Chromatographic both paper and thin-layer analysis of ethanol extractions of big sagebrush leaf samples led to the development of a simple field technique that can be used as an aid in identifying or separating subspecies of big sagebrush Hanks and others ; Holbo and Mozingo ; Young a,b; Young and Asplund , After chromatographic development, compounds were localized by exposing the wet chromatogram in a dark environment to long wave ultraviolet light 3, angstroms , which revealed the color and position of the various diagnostic spots.
Young a found that exposing the extracting bottle 2 grams of vegetative leaf tissues to 10 ml ethanol and noting the color of the fluorescent would give a preliminary classification of big sagebrush subspecies. Mountain big sagebrush extraction bottles contained a light blue fluorescent, and basin big sagebrush red.
Wyoming big sagebrush was undescribed at that time Beetle and Young Refinements were made to the technique and applied to dried leaves from the field or from herbarium specimens Winward and Tisdale Later, Stevens and McArthur substituted water for ethanol and were able to separate all three subspecies as follows: mountain was intense blue, Wyoming was light blue, and basin was pale blue to colorless.
Since then, this technique has been applied to spectrophotometry of both alcohol and water extractions as a means of identifying subspecies of big sagebrush and putative hybrids among subspecies McArthur and others ; Shumar and others ; Spomer and Henderson Kelsey and others discuss the usefulness of sesquiterpene lactones and thin-layer chromatography as an aid in identifying subspecies of big sagebrush. Root profiles of selected cold desert shrubs and grasses in disturbed and undisturbed soils.
Environmental and Experimental Botany. Acker, Steven A. Wildfire and soil organic carbon in sagebrushbunchgrass vegetation. Great Basin Naturalist. Aldous, A. Types of vegetation in the semiarid portion of the United States and their economic significance. Journal of Agricultural Research. Anderson, Jay E. Vegetation development over 25 years without grazing on sagebrush-dominated rangeland in southeastern Idhao. Journal of Range Management. Plant communities, ethnoecology, and flora of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Antevs, Ernst. Climatic changes and pre-white man.
University of Utah Bulletin. Astroth, Kirk A. Ogden, UT: U. Atwood, N. Flora of the National Reactor Testing Station. Bailey, Robert G. Description of the ecoregions of the United States. Washington, DC: U. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. Bailey, W. The sage brush. American Naturalist.
Baker, Richard G. Geology, palynology, and climatic significance of two pre-pinedale lake sediment sequences in and near Yellowstone National Park. Quaternary Research. Presettlement vegetation of part of northwestern Moffat County, Colorado, described from remnants. Balliette, John F. Infiltration and sediment production following chemical control of sagebrush in New Mexico.
Barker, Jerry R. Habitat differences between basin and Wyoming big sagebrush in contiguous populations. Baxter, Garth. Improving rangeland health by thinning dense sagebrush stands with tebuthiuron spike 20P. In: Evans, Keith E. Beetle, A. A study of sagebrush the section tridentatae of Artemisia. Range survey in Teton County, Wyoming: part I. Beetle, Alan A. New names within the section tridentatae of Artemisia. Sagebrush in Wyoming. A third subspecies in the Artemisia tridentata complex. Beiswenger, Jane M. Late quaternary vegetational history of Grays Lake, Idaho.
Ecological Monographs. Best, Lousi B. First-year effects of sagebrush control on two sparrows. Journal of Wildlife Management. Bilbrough, C. Branch architecture of sagebrush and bitterbrush: use of a branch complex to describe and compare patterns of growth. Canadian Journal of Botany. Billings, W. The plant associations of the Carson Desert region, western Nevada. Butler University Botanical Studies. Blackburn, W. Factors influencing infiltration and sediment production of semiarid rangelands in Nevada. Water Resources Research.
Infiltration rates and sediment production of selected plant communities in Nevada. Blackburn, Wilbert H. Spatial and temporal influence of soil frost on infiltration and erosion of sagebrush rangelands. Water Resources Bulletin. Vegetation and soils of the Duckwater watershed. Reno: University of Nevada, Max.
Season In Review
Vegetation and soils of the Churchill Canyon watershed. Reno: University of Nevada, Max C. Vegetation and soils of the Pine and Mathews Canyon watersheds. Blaisdell, James P. Competition between sagebrush seedlings and reseeded grasses. Managing Intermountain rangelands—sagebrush-grass ranges. Blank, Robert R. Sagebrush communities on clayey soils of northeastern California: a fragile equilibrium. In: Clary, Warren P.
Proceedings—symposium on ecology and management of riparian shrub communities; 28 May 29—31; Sun Valley, ID. Bonham, C. Inferences for life history strategies of Artemisia tridentata subspecies. Journal of Vegetation Science. Branson, F. Geographic distribution and factors affecting the distribution of salt desert shrubs in the United States.
Moisture relationships in twelve northern desert shrub communities near Grand Junction, Colorado. Bright, Robert C. Pollen and seed stratigraphy of Swan Lake, southeastern Idaho. Brown, Ray W. Distribution of plant communities in southeastern Montana badlands. American Midland Naturalist. Brunner, James R. Observations on Artemisia in Nevada. Caldwell, Martyn M. Physiology of sagebrush. Dynamics of Great Basin shrub root systems. In: Hadley, Neil F. Environmental physiology of desert organisms.
Cassidy, K. Land cover of Washington State: description and management. Vol 1. In: Cassidy, K. Washington State gap analysis project final report. Cawker, K. Fire history and grassland vegetation change: three pollen diagrams from southern British Columbia. Chabot, Brian F. Origins and ecology of the Sierran alpine flora and vegetation. Chambers, Jeanne C. Seed movements and seedling fates in disturbed sagebrush steppe ecosystems: implications for restoration.
Ecological Applications. Charley, James L. Plant-induced soil chemical patterns in some shrub-dominated semi-desert ecosystems of Utah. Journal of Ecology. Christensen, Earl M. The foothill bunchgrass vegetation of central Utah. Historical observations on the ecology of Rush and Tooele Valleys, Utah. Utah Academy of Arts and Sciences. Clark, Tim W. Ecology of Jackson Hole, Wyoming: a primer. Clements, Frederic E. Plant indicators: the relation of plant communities to process and practice.
Cole, Kenneth. Past rates of change, species richness, and a model of vegetational inertia in the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Cook, C. Wayne Herbicide control of sagebrush on seeded foothill ranges in Utah. Wayne; Stoddart, L. Physiological responses of big sagebrush to different types of herbage removal. Cook, John G. Climate-vegetation relationships between the Great Plains and Great Basin. Cooper, Harold W. Amounts of big sagebrush in plant communities near Tensleep, Wyoming, as affected by grazing treatment. Cottam, W. Plant succession as a result of grazing and of meadow desiccation by erosion since settlement in Journal of Forestry.
Cottam, Walter P. Man as a biotic factor illustrated by recent floristic and physiographic changes at the Mountain Meadows, Washington County, Utah. Characteristics of sites occupied by subspecies of Artemisia tridentata in the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Coues, Elliott editor. History of the expedition under the command of Lewis and Clark. New York: Dover Publications, Inc. I: — Vol II: —, — Vol III: — Daddy, F.
Vegetation and soil water differences among big sagebrush communities with different grazing histories. Southwestern Naturalist. Dale, Arlene. Comparative wood anatomy of some shrubs native to the Northern Rocky Mountains. Daubenmire, R. Steppe vegetation of Washington. Ecology of Artemisia tridentata subsp. Northwest Science. Dial, Kenneth P. The Woodhouse Mesa study. In: Betancourt, Julio L. Packrat middens. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press: 43— Diettert, R.
The morphology of Artemisia tridentata Nutt. Dobler, Frederick C. Washington state shrubs-steppe ecosystem studies with emphasis on the relationship between nongame birds and shrub and grass cover densities. In: Monsen, Stephen B. Proceeding—symposium on ecology, and management of Intermountain annual rangelands; May 18—22; Boise, ID. Dobrowolski, James P. Basin hydrology and plant root systems. In: Osmond, C. Barry; Hidy, George M. Plant biology of the basin and range.
Berlin: Springer-Verlag: — Doescher, P. Identification of the Artemisia tridentata ssp. Doescher, Paul S. Soil chemical patterns under eastern Oregon plant communities dominated by big sagebrush. Soil Science Society of America Journal. Donovan, L. Water stress and use of summer precipitation of a Great Basin shrub community. Functional Ecology. Douglas, David. Journal kept by David Douglas during his travels in North America — Eckert, Richard E.
Vegetation response on allotments grazed under rest-rotation management. Eissenstat, David M. Seasonal timing of root growth in favorable microsites. Eldridge, David J. Shrub mounds enhance water flow in a shrub-steppe community in southwestern Idaho, USA. In: Hild, Ann L. Terrance; McArthur, E. Durant, comps. Seed and soil dynamics in shrubland ecosystems: proceedings; August Laramie, WY.
Ellis, Kevin L. Habitat use by breeding male sage grouse: a management approach. Everett, Richard L. Great Basin pinyon and juniper communities and their response to management: In: Proceedings selected papers presented at the 38th annual meeting of the Society for Range Management; February 11—15; Salt Lake City, UT. Fairchild, John A. Microhabitat relationships of six major shrubs in Navajo National Monument, Arizona. Thompson; Zielinski, Gregory A.
Fautin, Reed W. Biotic communities of the northern desert shrub biome in western Utah. Feiler, Eric J. Scott; Koehler, Peter A. Arctic and Alpine Research. Feist, Francis G. Breeding-bird populations of sagebrushgrassland habitat in central Montana. Audubon Field Notes. Ferguson, C. Growth rings of sagebrush reveal rainfall records.
Progressive Agriculture in Arizona. Ferguson, Charles Wesley. Annual rings in big sagebrush. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press. Fernandez, Osvaldo A. Phenology and dynamics of root growth of three cool semi-desert shrubs under field conditions. Finley, Robert B. Woodrat ecology and behavior and the interpretation of paleomiddens. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press: 28— Fireman, Milton; Hayward, H.
Indicator significance of some shrubs in the Escalante Desert, Utah. Botanical Gazette. Fisser, Herbert G. Biology and ecology of sagebrush in Wyoming. Soil characterization and research methods. In: McArthur, E. Durant; Welch, Bruce L. Flanagan, L. Differential uptake of summer precipitation among co-occurring trees and shrubs in a pinyon-juniper woodland. Plant, Cell and Environment. Floyd, Donald A. A comparison of three methods for estimating plant cover.
Fowler, W. B; Helvey, J. Reading the weather in sagebrush. Pacific Search. Fremont, John Charles. Report of the exploring expedition to the Rocky Mountains in the year and to Oregon and northern California in the years — Congress Senate Document. Frischknecht, Neil C. Biological methods: a tool for sagebrush management: In: Proceedings the sagebrush ecosystem: a symposium; April; Logan, UT. Sheep can control sagebrush on seeded range if—. Utah Science.
Frisina, Michael R. Keying in on big sagebrush. Ganskopp, David C. Tolerances of sagebrush, rabbitbrush, and greasewood to elevated water tables. Gifford Gerald F. Infiltration rate and sediment production trends on a plowed big sagebrush site. Goodrich, Sherel; Huber, Allen. Mountain big sagebrush communities on the Bishop conglomerate in the eastern Uinta Mountain.
Durant; Fairbanks, Daniel J. Shrubland ecosystem genetics and biodiversity: proceedings; June 13—15; Provo, UT. Goodrich, Sherel; McArthur, E. Durant; Winward, Alma H. A new combination and a new variety in Artemisia tridentata. Sagebrush ecotones and average annual precipitation. Proceedings: shrub ecotones; August 12—14; Ephriam, UT. Vertebrate natural history of a section of northern California through the Lassen Peak region.
University of California Publications in Zoology. Gruell, George E. Post mule deer irruptions in the Intermountain West: principle cause and influences. Hall, Harvey M. The phylogenetic method in taxonomy the North American species of Artemisia, Chrysothamnus, and Atriplex. Hanks, David L. Durant; Stevens, Richard; Plummer, A. Chromatographic characteristics and phylogenetic relationships of Artemisia section Tridentatae. Hanson, W. Effects of grazing upon bunch wheatgrass. Journal of the American Society of Agronomy. Harniss, Roy O. Hazlett, Donald L. Plant species distributional patterns in Artemisia tridentata- and Artemisia canadominated vegetation in western North Dakota.
Heller, A. The flora of the Ruby Mountains. Hironaka, M. Basic synecological relationships of the Columbia River sagebrush type. Sagebrushgrass habitat types of southern Idaho. Hodgkinson, Harmon S. Big sagebrush subspecies and management implications. Holbo, H.
The chromatographic characterization of Artemisia, section Tridentatae. American Journal of Botany. Holechek, Jerry L. Comparison of big sagebrush vegetation in northcentral New Mexico under moderately grazed and grazing excluded conditions. Jameson, Donald A. Vegetation and soils of fishtail Mesa, Arizona. Jensen, Mark E. Soil characteristics of mountainous northeastern Nevada sagebrush community types. Soil climate and plant community relationships on some rangelands of northeastern Nevada.
Interpretation of environmental gradients which influence sagebrush community distribution in northeastern Nevada. Jensen, M. Correlation between soils and sagebrush-dominated plant communities of northeastern Nevada. Johnson, James R. Sagebrush reinvasion as affected by some environmental influences. Johnson, K. Vegetation of some mountain lakes and shores in northwestern Colorado. Johnson, Kendall L.
Basic synecological relationships of the sagebrush types on the high plains of Montana, Wyoming and the Dakotas. Sagebrush over time: a photographic study of rangeland change. Sagebrush types as ecological indicators to integrated pest management IPM in the sagebrush ecosystem of Western North America.
In: Onseger, J. Proceedings—Conference on integrated pest management on rangeland: state of the art in the sagebrush ecosystem: ARS Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Research Service: 1— Johnston, Barry C. Personal communication. Katzner, Todd E. Vegetative characteristics and size of home ranges used by pygmy rabbits Brachylagus idahoensis during winter.
Journal of Mammalogy. Kearney, T. Indicator significance of vegetation in Tooele Valley, Utah. Kelsey, Rick G. The use of sesquiterpene lactones as taxonomic markers in the shrubby species of Artemisia Section Tridentatae in Montana. Klyver, F. Major plant communities in a transect of the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. Knick, Steven T. Requiem for a sagebrush ecosystem? Landscape characteristics of fragmented shrubsteppe habitats and breeding passerine birds. Conservation Biology. Landscape characteristics of disturbed shrubsteppe habitats in southwestern Idaho U.
Landscape Ecology. Koehler, Peter A. Potential natural vegetation. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey: 89— Laycock, W. Factors affecting choice of management strategies within the sagebrush ecosystem. Lentz, R. Correspondence of soil properties and classification units with sagebrush communities in southeastern Oregon. Comparisons between mono-taxa soilvegetation units.
Comparisons within a multi-taxa soilvegetation unit. Link, Steven O. Dave; Downs, Janelle L. Responses of big sagebrush and spiny hopsage to increasing water stress. In: Roundy, Bruce A. Durant; Haley, Jennifer S. Lommasson, T. Succession in sagebrush. Loope, Lloyd L. The ecological role of fire in the Jackson Hole area, northwestern Wyoming.
Lunt, O. Oxygen requirement for root growth in three species of desert shrubs. Lusby, Gregg C. Hydrologic and biotic effects of grazing vs. Madsen, David B. Sagebrush: Seed and plant transfer guideline. Native Plants. Manning, Sara J. Shrub rooting characteristics and water acquisition on xeric sites in the western Great Basin. Durant; Romney, Evan M.
Proceeding—symposium on cheatgrass invasion, shrub die-off, and other aspects of shrub biology and management; April 5—7; Las Vegas, NV. Marchand, Denis E. Edaphic control of plant distribution in the White Mountains, eastern California. Marchand, L. Uniform garden studies on the Artemisia tridentata Nutt. Mason, Lamar R. McArthur, E. Sagebrush systematics and evolution. Taxonomy, origin, and distribution of big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata and allies Subgenus Tridentatae. In: Johnson, Kendall L. Ecology, distribution, and values of sagebrush within the intermountain region.
Proceedings—ecology and management of annual rangelands; May 18—22; Boise, ID. Durant; Blauer, A. Clyde; Monsen, Stephen B. Plant inventory, succession, and reclamation alternatives on disturbed lands in Grand Teton National Park. Clyde; Plummer, A. Perry; Stevens, Richard. Characteristics and hybridization of important intermountaion shrubs. Sunflower family. Durant; Goodrich, Sherel K. Artemisia tridentata ssp. Durant; Ott, Jeff E. Potential natural vegetation in the 17 conterminous Western United States. In: Barrow, Jerry R.
Durant; Sosebee, Ronald E. Proceedings—symposium on shrubland ecosystem dynamics in a changing environment; May 23—25; Las Cruces, NM. Durant; Plummer, A. Biogeography and management of native western shrubs: a case study, section tridentatae of Artemisia. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs. Durant; Sanderson, Stewart C. Cytogeography and chromosome evolution of subgenus Tridentatae of Artemisia Asteraceae.
Natural and artificial hybridization between big sagebrush Artemisia tridentata subspecies. Journal of Heredity. Know your sagebrush—and better your range. McDonough, W. Morphology of ephemeral and persistent leaves of three subspecies of big sagebrush grown in a uniform environment. McGinnies, William J. Correlation between annual rings of woody plants and range herbage production. Mehringer, Peter J.
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In: Bryant, V. Pollen records of late-Quaternary North American sediments. Comparison of late Holocene environments from woodrat middens and pollen, Diamond Craters, Oregon. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press: — Merkle, John. An analysis of a pinyon-juniper community at Grand Canyon, Arizona.
Plant communities of the Grand Canyon area, Arizona. Miller, R. Growth and water relations of three big sagebrush species. Special Rep. Miller, Richard F. Growth and internal water status of three subspecies of Artemisia tridentata. Development and longevity of ephemeral and perennial leaves on Artemisia tridentata Nutt. Implications of livestock grazing in the Intermountain sagebrush region: plant composition. Ecological implications of livestock herbivory in the West. Monsen, Stephen B. Factors influencing establishment of seeded broadleaf herbs and shrubs following fire.
In: Sanders, Ken; Durham, Jack, eds. A symposium—rangeland fire effects; November 27—29; Boise, ID. Boise, ID: U. Morris, Melvin S. The geographic and ecological distribution of big sagebrush and other woody Artemisias in Montana. Green Bay Packers. New Orleans Saints. New York Giants. New York Jets. Cleveland Browns. Oakland Raiders 75 2. Pittsburgh Steelers 78 3. New York Giants 83 5. Baltimore Ravens 84 No division has been more hotly contested in this era than the NFC East, as the season marked the division's 13th con- 6. Washington Redskins 91 secutive campaign without a repeat champion, easily the league's 7t.
Atlanta Falcons 93 longest stretch. No other division has gone more than three years 7t. Dallas Cowboys 93 since their last repeat champion. Los Angeles Chargers 94 The stretch helped the Redskins rank fifth in the found additional leadership in both the coaching and player ranks. NFL in points scored on opening possessions in Two months later, the Redskins signed safety D. Swear- 1t. Green Bay Packers 7 2 54 inger on the first day of unrestricted free agency. Washington Redskins 5 6 47 Washington Post. The wide 8. Philadelphia Eagles 6 1 45 receivers, you gotta stay in your seat belt.
After cornerback Kendall Fuller pulled in a game- Philadelphia 3 56 Touchdown make important contributions in the secondary in Oakland 2 3 Interception jured Norman and registered a couple of critical passes defensed at Kansas City 3 -7 Punt in a win over San Francisco in Week 6. Rookie safety Montae Nich- vs. Dallas 1 4 Fumble later leveling and knocking wide receiver Michael Crabtree out of at Seattle 3 -6 Punt the game with a legal hit.
Minnesota 5 75 Touchdown Collectively, the unit held passers to an The Redskins vs. NY Giants 3 6 Punt ranked 10th in opposing passer rating, finishing in the top half in the at Dallas 3 4 Punt NFL and in the Top 10 in the category for the first time since It marked the 10th time since that the Redskins have Redskins They entered offense entered Week 2 with something prove about its running the contest ranked first in the NFL in points per game, second in game. For Yds. Oakland 32 96 The yard effort ranked as the 10th-most in the NFL in a The Redskins tied a team record by limiting the Raiders to 0-of- single game in 11 on third downs.
It marked the third time since that the Red- skins have held an opponent without a third down conversion. Arizona 0 9 0. Dallas 0 11 0. Oakland 0 11 0. Thomp- 8t. TD since Dec. The Redskins signed Thompson to a multi-year contract extension in Week 1 of the season, locking up the third-down back that Gruden considers the best in the NFL. At Florida State, two broken vetebrae ended his season and a knee injury ended his campaign.
Early in , Thompson has picked up where he left off in He followed that performance up with a career day in Los history with at least rushing yards and at least receiv- Angeles, rushing three times and posting career highs in rushing ing yards, joining Jim Podoley , Charley Taylor and yards 77 and rushing touchdowns two, including a yarder , Clarence Harmon , Joe Washington His Thompson accomplished the feat in 10 aerial assault in a drubbing of the Oakland Raiders, gaining games, while the other five players all appeared in at least 15 yards on six receptions and contributing another 38 yards on games.
His yards from scrimmage were the most by any member of the Redskins since Alfred Morris on Dec. Dallas , including rushing and 12 receiving. In ending injury, Thompson led the Redskins in both rushing and Week 6, he became only the second Redskins running back since receiving yards, the only player in the NFL at the time to lead a to record multiple yard games through the air in a single team in both categories.
You want to fullback Larry Centers in Player Touches Yards Avg. James White 1, 6. Chris Thompson 2, 6. His 7. Darren Sproles 8, 6. The mark is the fifth-best in team history dating back to the franchise's in- 4. Duke Johnson Jr. Danny Woodhead 4, 6. Despite being limited by injury to only 12 games with eight starts in , the ex-college-quarterback recorded 66 receptions for yards with six receiving touchdowns.
A year earlier, he com- piled arguably the greatest season by a tight end in franchise his- tory. During the regular season, Reed recorded 87 receptions for yards both team records for a tight end with 11 receiving touchdowns, becoming the first tight end to lead the Redskins in all three categories since Fugett in Really, the sky is the limit for Jordan. And he can beat a lot of people. Zach Ertz Phi 43 14 compiled career receptions for 2, yards with 22 receiving 4. Jason Witten Dal 48 11 touchdowns.
In Week 4 of the season against Cleveland, Reed 5. Kyle Rudolph Min 48 20 recorded his th career reception in his 38th career game, be- 6. Jimmy Graham Sea 43 18 9. Kellen Winslow Sr. Kyle Rudolph Min 20 3. Jordan Reed Was 19 While various injuries limited Reed to 9, 11, 14, 12 and 6 games 4t. Jimmy Graham Sea 18 among the league's best. Reed ranks first among all NFL tight ends in receptions per game since entering the league in Travis Kelce KC 2.
Rob Gronkowski NE 1. Jordan Reed 52 5. Zach Ertz Phi 2. Rob Gronkowski 59 4. Greg Olsen Car 3. Travis Kelce 64 4. Kyle Rudolph Min 4. Delanie Walker 76 4. Jimmy Graham Sea 5. Greg Olsen 71 4. Jordan Reed Was 9. Jason Witten Dal 95 Chris Cooley 9 2. Bill Anderson 6 1. Jordan Reed 14 87 2. Chris Cooley 16 71 Player Seasons Yards 5. Jerry Smith 14 67 1. Jerry Smith 13 5, 6t. Jordan Reed 11 66 2.
Chris Cooley 9 4, 6t. Chris Cooley 16 66 3. Bill Anderson 6 2, 8. Fred Davis 12 59 4. Jordan Reed 5 2, 5. Chris Cooley 16 1. Jerry Smith 13 60 2t. Chris Cooley 16 2.
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Chris Cooley 9 33 2t. Jerry Smith 14 3. Jordan Reed 5 22 5. Fred Davis 12 4. Jean Fugett 4 21 6. Chris Cooley 16 5. Clint Didier 6 19 7. Chris Cooley 16 8t. Bill Anderson 11 8t. Jordan Reed 14 11 3t. Pat Richter 14 9 Player Games 3t. Jerry Smith 14 9 1. Charley Taylor 17 3t. Jerry Smith 14 9 2. Art Monk 12 6. Chris Cooley 16 8 3. Bobby Mitchell 11 7t. Chris Cooley 16 7 4. Jerry Smith 10 7t. Jean Fugett 14 7 5. Gary Clark 8 7t. Jerry Smith 14 7 6. Jordan Reed 7 7. The Redskins were in when Reed caught multiple touchdowns. Player Season TD 1t. Hugh Taylor 12 1t. Jordan Reed 4 5t. Jordan Reed 11 1t.
Bobby Mitchell 4 5t. Bobby Mitchell 11 1t. Jerry Smith 4 7t. Gary Clark 10 4t. Many players tied 3 7t. Bobby Mitchell 10 9t. As of the conclusion of the season, 30 of them had appeared in NFL game action. Thirteen of those players were drafted ahead of the moment when the Washington Redskins selected Jamison Crowder with the No. Only two players from the draft class have member of the Redskins to return a punt for a touchdown since more career receptions than Crowder.
Brian Mitchell 23 years, 35 days at Cincinnati on Sept. His fourth-place ranking in the NFL in punt return average was the best Rd. Amari Cooper finish in The dual threat was the only player in the NFL in 1 7 Chi 2. Kevin White to catch at least 65 passes and average at least DeVante Parker turn. Breshad Perriman ond-most by a member of the Redskins in the first three years of 1 29 Ind 6.
Phillip Dorsett an NFL career. Devin Smith 2 40 Ten 8. Jaelen Strong 1. Gary Clark 19 3 76 KC Chris Conley 2. Jamison Crowder 2, 12 3 87 Pit Sammie Coates 3. Jordan Reed 1, 14 3 94 GB Ty Montgomery 4. Rod Gardner 2, 17 4 Was Jamison Crowder 5. Chris Cooley 1, 19 4 Atl Stefon Diggs Min 2, 15 1. Jamison Crowder 59 2 3. Jamison Crowder Was 2, 12 2. Art Monk 58 3 4. DeVante Parker Mia 1, 8 3.
Charley Taylor 53 5 5. How about a 6-foot-3, pound veteran registering only 3. What about that same man reportedly still running the yard dash in the 4. For Vernon Davis, those astoundingly true facts tell only part of the story. A native of Washington, D. At age in those seasons, he ranks second only to Redskins legend Jerry Smith in both cat- egories among tight ends age 30 or older in team history, according to records provided by Pro Football Reference. Ageless as a physical specimen, Davis is trying to make his ca- reer production withstand the test of time as well.
He now ranks in the Top 10 in NFL history in career receptions, receiving yards and receiving touchdowns by a tight end. Tony Gonzalez 17 1, 2. Jason Witten 15 1, 3. Antonio Gates 15 4. Shannon Sharpe 14 5. Ozzie Newsome 13 6. Greg Olsen 11 7. Heath Miller 11 8. I mean, 9. Vernon Davis 12 really.
Jeremy Shockey 10 Tony Gonzalez 17 15, 2. Jason Witten 15 12, season. His diet is top-notch. His workouts are on 3. Antonio Gates 14 11, point. Shannon Sharpe 15 10, 5. Ozzie Newsome 13 7, ways got a smile on his face. Greg Olsen 11 7, seeing every day and then you watch him practice 8. Pete Retzlaff 11 7, 9. Great guy, great Vernon Davis 12 7, player. Jimmy Graham 8 6, What 1. Antonio Gates 15 2. Tony Gonzalez 17 an asset to our offense. Rob Gronkowski 8 76 teammate, great person. He carries himself well. Jimmy Graham 8 69 You just love going to work with him every day.
Jason Witten 15 68 6. Shannon Sharpe 14 62 Those are the guys you love to win with, because 7t. Vernon Davis 12 60 9. Wesley Walls 14 54 and they go about their business. But while it might not have the same cachet, calling the three-time Pro Bowler "Mr. Reliable" might be just as apt. With the selec- 1. Dexter Manley 8 Charles Mann 11 Ryan Kerrigan 7 Monte Coleman 16 Ken Harvey 5 In Week 4 of the season, Kerrigan became the first member of the Redskins since at least to open a career with consecutive regular season starts.
He also became only the fifth member of the Red- skins to post multiple sack seasons since Dexter Manley, Ryan Kerrigan 7 Kerrigan's productivity has provided a number of opportunities Player Season Sacks for him to showcase his co-opted celebration. Dexter Manley Charles Mann Ryan Kerrigan Ken Harvey You need to trademark it. Von Miller DEN Watt HOU Ryan Kerrigan WAS Justin Houston KC Robert Quinn LAR Ryan Kerrigan 22 port to seriously ill, special needs and physically chal- 2t. Cliff Avril 21 lenged children throughout the Greater Washington D. Von Miller 21 In training camp in , the question was posed to Head 4.
Charles Tillman 19 ers than Kerrigan? He practices hard; in fact, we have to pull him back a little bit because he practices so hard and we want to keep him healthy for the week grind. He rewarded their faith as a rookie in , The thenyear-old lockdown corner became the subject of leading the team with two interceptions and starting 15 games — teams trying to lock down his services.
Norman joined the Redskins having previously appeared in 53 In Week 5 of the season, Breeland posted four passes de- regular season games with 38 starts for Carolina, recording fensed and his first interception of the season, playing a key role tackles solo , 36 passes defensed, seven interceptions two in helping limit Falcons receiver Julio Jones to only five receptions returned for touchdowns , four forced fumbles and three fumbles and no receiving touchdowns. A week later, Breeland turned in a recovered from Byron Maxwell 8 member of the Redskins to record an interception in consecutive 1t.
Keanu Neal 8 games since London Fletcher did so in three straight games across 3t. Josh Norman 7 Weeks of the season. Three players tied 6 have even ended with the ball in his hands. On a first down with slightly more than four minutes remaining, Tampa Bay running back Doug Mar- Player PD tin broke free down the right sideline with a clear path to a game- 1. Marcus Peters 55 clinching touchdown. Breeland — coming from the opposite side of 2. Robert Alford 54 the field — was able to push Martin out-of-bounds after 49 yards at 3.
Darius Slay 52 the Washington 5-yard line for a touchdown-saving stop. Brent Grimes 49 Breeland injured his hamstring with the monstrous effort, but 4t. Josh Norman 47 field goal on the drive, allowing the Washington offense to drive 7t. Bashaud Breeland 46 down the field and score a touchdown to complete the largest 7t. David Amerson 46 comeback in franchise history. Gruden and the career-high tackle day. Redskins learned early in And he last one off the field.
As hustled, got them down at the five. We would never change that. Punter Tress Way is emblematic of both ideals. The Redskins spent the majority of the offseason eval- After a solid debut in , Hopkins went for on field uating a punting battle between newcomers Robert Malone and goal attempts in , breaking Mark Moseley's record 33 in Blake Clingan, but the race received a darkhorse candidate when for the most field goals in a single season in team history.
In Week the team claimed Way off waivers from Chicago on Aug.
Way was given 10 days to stake a claim to the punting job. Way averaged He finished the season averaging Dustin Hopkins 34 42 Mark Moseley 33 47 Way became 3t. Graham Gano 31 41 Chip Lohmiller 31 43 Chip Lohmiller 30 40 Tress Way Sammy Baugh Mark Moseley Chip Lohmiller Curt Knight Shaun Suisham 81 Dustin Hopkins 73 87 After facing an early deficit, the Redskins scored late season vs.
Denver, when punter Hunter Smith connected with in the first half and at the start of the second half to cut the lead to fullback Mike Sellers for a yard touchdown. Player Season No. Tress Way 33 1t. Matt Turk 32 know how he keeps them in play. Tom Tupa 30 5t. Jeff Hayes 29 5t.
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Matt Turk 29 It was only the fourth successful onside kick by the Redskins 8. Sav Rocca 28 since and ended a streak of 18 unsuccessful onside kick at- 9t. Bryan Barker 27 tempts by the Redskins over the previous nine seasons. Matt Turk 5 5 4 Phi John Hall 2. Sav Rocca 3 76 5. FA-'15 64 Francis A. FA-'10 36 Swearinger D. FA-'17 63R Barnes Sr. CFA-'13 Clemmings T. D4b-'17 Pryor Sr. D3-'13 Taylor Sr. D4b-'15 64 A. CFA-'13 T. D4b-'17 Terrelle Pryor Sr. D3-'13 Phil Taylor Sr. D3-'17 36 D. Special Teams , Kavan Latham Asst. Rams 56, Thompson 64 4. Marshall LG 9 32 3.
Marshall TM 9 32 3. Brown TM 8 29 3. Giants 73, Daniels TM 3 14 4. Chargers 25, Doctson 1 Davis 43 Per Game Marshall LG 6 36 6. Marshall TM 6 36 6. Brown TM 1 11 Davis 3 0 3 0 0 18 Thompson 8 Marshall LG 4 89 Marshall TM 4 89 Brown 2. Swearinger 81 22 4 0. NFC East at home Redskins total net yards vs.
NFC East on road Redskins total net yards vs. NFC North Redskins total rushing yards vs. NFC South Redskins total rushing yards vs. AFC East Redskins total passing yards vs. AFC West Redskins total passing yards vs. AFC North Redskins total passing yards vs. AFC Redskins have a yard passer Pryor Sr. Williams S. Lauvao S. Long B. Scherff M.
Moses J. Reed J. Crowder K. Cousins R. Kelley V. Doctson T. Reed N. Paul TE2 K. Moses V. Davis N. Cousins S. Perine J. Kelley J. Cousins C. Thompson V. Clemmings S. Lauvao C. Roullier T. Catalina M. Clemmings A. Kouandjio C. Davis R. Grant K. Kelley B. Roullier B. Nsekhe A. Kouandjio T. Bergstrom B. Perine N. Williams T. Nsekhe T. Davis J. Perine R. Williams A. Allen Z. Hood S. McGee P. Smith Z. Brown M. Foster R. Kerrigan B. Breeland J. Norman D.
Everett D. Allen K. Fuller CB3 M. Ioannidis P. Norman M. Nicholson D. Brown W. Compton R. Spaight R. Breeland Q. Dunbar M. Fuller CB3 Z. Hood M. Kerrigan Q. Dunbar J. McClain Z. Hall D. McGee Z. Brown Z. Vigil R. Lanier II Z. Smith M. Spaight Z. Lanier II K. Rush Pass Pen. Plays Rush Att. Pass Att. Long TD No. TD No. PAT 2-pt. FG Poss. Thompson 29 yd. Cousins D.
Hopkins 33 yd. Hopkins 41 yd. Thompson 7 yd. Hopkins 22 yd. Thompson 61 yd. Grant 11 yd. Thompson 22 yd. Davis 18 yd. Doctson 52 yd. Hopkins 23 yd. Hopkins 28 yd. Pryor 44 yd. Hopkins 19 yd. Grant 3 yd. Hopkins 40 yd. Doctson 11 yd. Perine 3 yd. Hopkins 48 yd. Hopkins 21 yd. Cousins 7 yd. Rose 27 yd. Cousins N. Reed 5 yd. Reed 12 yd. Rose 38 yd. Kelley 1 yd. Rose 42 yd. Doctson 1 yd. Rose 28 yd. Harris 36 yd. Cousins 1 yd. Rose 21 yd. Cousins 2 yd. Rose 55 yd. Thompson 16 yd. Perine 1 yd. Grant 40 yd. Sprinkle 7 yd. Crowder 15 yd. Doctson 14 yd. Rose 33 yd.
Grant 20 yd. Davis 23 yd. Crowder 5 yd. Bibbs 36 yd. Hopkins 24 yd. Hopkins 32 yd. Hopkins 26 yd. Hopkins 29 yd. Doctson 48 yd. Davis 31 yd. Cousins 12 yd. Hopkins 49 yd. Field Goal 1 0 2 Returns of any kind for touchdowns are not included on this chart; they do not count as drives. Agholor 58 yd. Wentz C. Blount 1 yd. Sturgis 50 yd. Sturgis 42 yd. Sturgis 37 yd. Gurley 1 yd. Zuerlein 32 yd. Gurley 18 yd. Goff G. Zuerlein 40 yd. Cook 21 yd.
Carr G. Tavecchio 22 yd. Kelce 17 yd. Smith H. Smith 1 yd. Butker 26 yd. Butker 32 yd. Butker 43 yd. Hyde 1 yd. Gould 52 yd. Robinson 45 yd. Beathard R. Elliott 50 yd. Hollins 64 yd. Wentz J. Ertz 4 yd. Clement 9 yd. Agholor 10 yd. Elliott 42 yd. Elliott 13 yd. Elliott 1 yd.
Nugent 36 yd. Nugent 48 yd. Nugent 27 yd. Nugent 37 yd. Willson 10 yd. Baldwin 30 yd. Murray 1 yd. Diggs 3 yd. Keenum K. Thielen 7 yd. Morgan 1 yd. Wright 7 yd. Forbath 53 yd. Lutz 52 yd. Ingram 36 yd. Lutz 29 yd.